Total marks – 300
Formative assessment marks=10
• Written = 90
– [MCQ=20 (Multiple True False-10 + SBA-10),
– SAQ+SEQ = 70
– Making a total of 100 marks
• Structured Oral Examination (SOE) = 100
• Practical: 100 OSPE =40 (08 procedure stations, each having 05 marks]
Traditional =60 (Prescription writing 10, Drug interaction 05 x 02 =10,
Tracing and plotting = 10, Integrated teaching and Case report = (5+15) = 20,
Practical notebook =10)


Term I
Core Contents

01: Introduction to Pharmacology

02: Drug Compendia (Information sources)
Pharmacopoeia, Formulary, Treatment guidelines (BP, INN, BNF and BDNF)

03. Drug Administration
Routes, drug delivery, and formulations for local & systemic effects

04: Drug Absorption
Transfer of drugs across cell membrane & specialized barriers, Factors influencing absorption

05: Bio-availability
Studies to compare bio-equivalence & to monitor therapy

06: Drug Distribution
Vd, Plasma protein & tissue binding, redistribution

07: Drug Metabolism
Where, why, and how of bio-transformation, hepatic microsomal enzymes- induction & inhibition Genetic influence on Drug metabolism (Pharmacogenetics)

08: Drug Elimination
Routes, Renal Excretion & factors influencing renal excretion

09: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Vd, Cl, First & Zero order kinetics of Elimination, t½, Steady state concentration, loading dose & maintenance dose

10: Pharmaco-Dynamics:
Specific and non-specific mechanisms Receptors involved Second messenger system Enzyme mediated drug action

11: Quantitative aspects of drug action Dose-response relationships & curves Therapeutic Index and window-importance Information obtained from D-R curves Agonists – efficacy, potency, shift of curves Antagonists – efficacy, potency, shift of curves

12: Individual variations in drug responses

13. Drug Interaction at different levels

14: Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance
Adverse drug reactions: Types, detecting & managing ADR ADR monitoring & reporting


Core Contents

01: Introduction
Organization of ANS – sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric NS. Transmitters in ANS (ACh, NA, NANCs) Co-transmission, pre and postsynaptic modulation Cholinergic neurotransmission & drugs modifying the events, Cholinergic receptors

02: Cholinergic Drugs
Effects of the stimulation of Cholinoceptors Classification of cholinergic drugs – cholinoceptor agonists and anti-cholinesterase

03: Drugs for Glaucoma
Role of Cholinergic drugs compared to other drugs

04: OPC insecticide poisoning
Manifestation & management

05: Anti-cholinergic Anti-muscarinic
Atropine and atropine substitutes

06: Anti-cholinergic anti-nicotinic
Classification – Neuromuscular blockers & their role as skeletal muscle relaxant during anesthesia Ganglion blocker (names only) (No-6 red part to be deleted)

07: Adrenergic neurotransmission
Drugs modifying the events Adrenergic receptors Effects of stimulation of adrenoceptors

08: Adrenergic Drugs
Classification Adrenergic inotropic agents & their role in therapy Role of Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Dopamine & Dobutamine in therapy Adrenergic vasoconstrictors, nasal decongestants

09: Selective β2 agonists as Bronchodilators, Other bronchodilators
used in bronchial asthma

10: α–adrenoceptor antagonist
Role of selective α1 antagonist in therapy

11: β- adrenoceptor antagonist
Role of β blockers in therapy


Core Contents
Renal & Cardiovascular Pharmacology Lectures:

01: Diuretics
Classification of diuretics: based on sites & mechanism of action and efficacy Pharmacology of Thiazides, Loop, Potassium-sparing diuretics: their role in therapy edema and hypertension

02: Drugs used in hypertension
Epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension, Objectives of anti-hypertensive therapy, Classification of anti-hypertensive drugs. Pharmacology of Diuretics,  blockers, Ca channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor antagonists,  blockers,  methyl dopa, Vasodilators Principles of selection of drug in different clinical situations

03: Drugs used in congestive cardiac failure
Pathophysiology of heart failure Objectives of therapy Drugs used in CCF: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors & ARBs, Selective -blockers, (Additional) Cardiac glycosides, vasodilators, and Phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

04: Antianginal drugs
Pathophysiology of angina, Objectives of therapy Drugs used in angina: Nitrates, β- blockers, Ca2+ channel blockers.

05. Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Pathophysiology of arrhythmia Pharmacology of antiarrhythmic drugs


Core Contents


01: Anticoagulants & Thrombolytics
Pathophysiology of thrombo-embolism Pharmacology of Anti-coagulants: Heparin and LMW heparin, warfarin. Pharmacology of thrombolytics: Streptokinase, Alteplase, Rerelease, etc.
02: Antiplatelet drugs
Pharmacology of low dose aspirin, clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and their role in therapy

03: Lipid-regulating drugs
Pharmacology of statins. fibrates, nicotinic acid, resins etc.

04: Drugs for anemia
Pathophysiology of anemia Pharmacology of hemopoietic iron, folic acid, vit B12 Pharmacology of erythropoietin


Core Contents
Endocrine Pharmacology
01: Endocrine Pancreas and control of blood glucose
Islet hormones, control of blood glucose Diabetes mellitus – types, diagnostic criteria, monitoring Insulin & preparations Oral Hypoglycemic agent’s Hypoglycemic reactions & management

02: Adrenal cortex and drugs used in therapy
Adrenocortical hormones: synthesis & blockers; Control of secretion, mechanism of action Pharmacological actions, uses, and preparations Adverse effects

03: Reproductive system
Hormonal control of the female reproductive system Estrogens & anti-estrogens Progesterone & anti-progesterone Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Drugs used for contraception

04: The Uterus
Drugs that stimulate uterine contraction (oxytocic) Drugs that inhibit uterine contraction

05: The Thyroid
Synthesis, storage & secretion of thyroid hormones Thyroid functions & regulations Abnormalities of thyroid function Drugs used in disease of thyroid


Core Contents
Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
01: Drugs used in Peptic ulcer
Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer Therapeutic goal and approach Antacids, H2- blockers, Proton pump inhibitors, gastric cytoprotective agents, Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen Gastroprokinetic drugs and other agents

02: Drugs to treat diarrhea
Epidemiology, Principles of management Fluid and electrolyte replacement Selection of route and preparations ORS and different IV fluids Role of Antimicrobial drugs Antimotility drugs

03: Drugs used in helminthiasis
04: Laxatives

05: Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBS) & irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

06: Anti-emetic and Pro-kinetic drugs


Term II
Core Contents
Central Nervous System

01: Introduction to CNS Drugs
Neurotransmitters of CNS (distribution, ion channel) general characteristics of CNS drugs

02: Opioid analgesic
Pathophysiology of pain, Pain pathway, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors Opioids: morphine, codeine, pethidine, tramadol, fentanyl used as analgesics compared. Role of morphine in myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema. Other clinical uses of opioids

03: Anxiolytics and hypnotics
Pathophysiology of sleep Benzodiazepines and other non-BDZ sedative-hypnotics Centrally acting muscle relaxants

04: Antidepressant drugs
Neurochemical basis of depression TCAs, SSRIs, MAOIs and other atypical antidepressants, Antimanic drugs

05: Antipsychotic drugs
Neurochemical basis of psychosis Pharmacology of anti-psychotic drugs:

06: Local anesthetic
Drugs, mechanism of action, techniques of local anesthesia, uses and hazards

07: General anesthetics
Principles of General Anesthesia Preanesthetic medication, Balanced Anesthesia Induction & Maintenance: Intravenous anesthetics &Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxides, halothane, fluranes)

08: Skeletal muscle relaxation
Depolarizing and non-depolarizing

09: Antiparkinsonian Drugs
Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s diseases Pharmacology of antiparkinsonian drugs

10: Antiepileptics/Anticonvulsants
Pathophysiology of epilepsy Pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs


Autacoids and drugs used in inflammation
01: Autacoids
Definition and lists of autacoids
Histamine: synthesis, storage & release, pharmacological actions & physiological role
Histamine antagonist: H1 antagonists: classification, role in allergic conditions & other clinical uses and adverse reactions
H2-receptor antagonists: role in peptic ulcer (covered with GIT Pharmacology)

02: Ecosanoids Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Synthetic pathways & antagonists’ Physiological roles, pharmacological actions and possible clinical uses of synthetic analogues and antagonists

03: NSAIDs / Non-opioid analgesics delete red part* of the line Paracetamol (mechanism of antipyretic and analgesic action, adverse effects) Other NSAIDs (mechanism of action, adverse effects and precaution) Selective COX II inhibitors

04. Drugs for Migraine


Core Contents
01: Introduction
The general concept, Mode of action & Classification of antimicrobials Principles of antimicrobial therapy

02: Drug Resistance Mechanism of development of drug resistance by microbes

03: Cell wall synthesis inhibitors Penicillin’s Cephalosporins Other -lactams Non -lactam antibiotics

04: Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Newer Protein synthesis inhibitors

05: Sulfonamides & Cotrimoxazole
Sulfonamides combinations, Topical uses Cotrimoxazole

06: Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones

07: Anti Amoebic Drugs:
Metronidazole and other uses of Metronidazole

08: Drugs used in Tuberculosis

09: Drugs used in Leprosy

10: Drugs used in Malaria & Kala-Azar
11: Drugs used in Fungal Infections
12: Drugs used in Viral Infections
13: Cancer Chemotherapy
14. Anti-Helminthic Drugs


Core Contents


01: Rational Prescribing
General Principles, cusses & consequences of irrational prescribing, Measures to prevent irrational prescribing

02: Essential Drug concept
Definition, Selection criteria, Essential Drug List Rationale for prescribing from this Drug List

03: ‘P’ Drug concept
Definition, Selection criteria, selection of ‘P’ Drug for some clinical situations 04: Drug selection for some special clinical conditions: Pregnancy, Lactating mother, elderly, children, renal / hepatic failure or impairment 05: Anti-Microbial Resistance and how to overcome the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials


Pharmacology Practical

Core Contents

1. Prescription writing
Format, legal & ethical aspects, drug nomenclature, compliance and Exercise on Prescription Writing
2. Drug Dosage Formulations
Source & Routes of drug administration Drug Formulation & Delivery Techniques Exercise on Drug Dosage Formulations

3. Clinical Pharmacokinetics Study of Time-Plasma Concentration Curves Determination of t½, Vd, Cl, Ke, steady-state concentration, Loading & Maintenance dose

4. Study of Pharmacodynamics

I. Study of Dose-Response Relationship
Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves
II. Study of Drug Antagonism
Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves in presence of Antagonists

5. Adverse drug Reaction
Exercise on ADRs reporting & monitoring


Core Contents

1. Interpretation of Tracings on Blood Pressure
Demonstration of the presence of Autonomic receptors
2. Study of Effect of Drugs on Skeletal Neuromuscular Junction
Demonstration of the presence of Nicotinic receptors & effect of competitive reversible & irreversible neuromuscular blockers on them


Core Contents

1. Drug Information Sources
A comparative study of the ‘Prescribing information of Drugs’ as provided by the Manufacturers’ Product Literature and the authentic Drug Compendia (British National Formulary/ Bangladesh National Formulary)

2. Essential Drug Concept Exercise on selection Essential Drugs

3. ‘P Drug’ Concept
Exercise on selection ‘P Drugs for different clinical situations & preparation of student formulary

4. Prescription Audit
Exercise on ‘Prescription Audit’ using INRUD indicators


Pharmacology Tutorial
Term I

General Pharmacology:
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Autonomic Pharmacology:
• Review of Cholinergic–Anticholinergic drugs
• Revives of Adrenergic–Antiadrenergic drug
• Drugs acting on Renal & CVS
• Review on Endocrine drug
• Drugs for Bronchial asthma, PUD, Anemia

Term II

• Drugs used in Anxiety, sleep disorder
• Drugs used in depression, epilepsy and parkinsonism
• Autacoids & NSAIDs
• Chemotherapy for specific infections: Shigellosis, Enteric fever, ARIs, UTIs, malaria, tuberculosis, fungal infections
• RUM: Principles of Rational prescribing & means to resist pressure for irrational prescribing, Essential Drug Concept


Clinical case studies & presentation – 5 Clinical Cases