Total marks – 300

Formative assessment marks=10

  • Written = 90

[MCQ=20 (Multiple True False-10 + SBA-10),

SAQ+SEQ = 70

Making a total of 100 marks

  • Structured Oral Examination (SOE) = 100
  • Practical: 100 OSPE =40 (08 procedure stations, each having 05 marks]

Traditional =60 (Prescription writing 10, Drug interaction 05 x 02 =10,

Tracing and plotting = 10, Integrated teaching and Case report = (5+15) = 20,

Practical notebook =10)


Term I




01: Introduction to Pharmacology


02: Drug Compendia (Information sources)

Pharmacopoeia, Formulary, Treatment guidelines (BP, INN, BNF, and BDNF)


03. Drug Administration

Routes, drug delivery, and formulations for local & systemic effects


04: Drug Absorption

Transfer of drugs across cell membrane & specialized barriers, Factors influencing absorption


05: Bio-availability

Studies to compare Bio-equivalence & to monitor therapy


06: Drug Distribution

Vd, Plasma protein & tissue binding, redistribution


 07: Drug Metabolism

Where, why, and how of bio-transformation, hepatic microsomal enzymes- induction & inhibition Genetic influence on Drug metabolism (Pharmacogenetics)

08: Drug Elimination

Routes, Renal Excretion & Factors Influencing Renal Excretion


09: Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Vd, Cl, First & Zero order kinetics of Elimination, t½, Steady state concentration, loading dose & maintenance dose


10: Pharmaco-Dynamics:

Specific and non-specific mechanisms Receptors involved Second messenger system Enzyme mediated drug action


11: Quantitative aspects of drug action Dose-response relationships & curves Therapeutic Index and window-importance Information obtained from D-R curves Agonists – efficacy, potency, shift of curves Antagonists – efficacy, potency, shift of curves


12: Individual variations in drug responses


13. Drug Interaction at different levels


14: Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance

Adverse drug reactions: Types, detecting & managing ADR ADR monitoring & reporting

Core Contents




 01: Introduction

Organization of ANS – sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric NS. Transmitters in ANS (ACh, NA, NANCs) Co-transmission, pre and postsynaptic modulation Cholinergic neurotransmission & drugs modifying the events, Cholinergic receptors


02: Cholinergic Drugs

Effects of the stimulation of Cholinoceptors Classification of cholinergic drugs – cholinoceptor agonists and anti-cholinesterase


03: Drugs for Glaucoma

Role of Cholinergic drugs compared to other drugs


04: OPC insecticide poisoning

Manifestation & management


 05: Anti-cholinergic Anti-muscarinic

Atropine and atropine substitutes

06: Anti-cholinergic anti-nicotinic

Classification – Neuromuscular blockers & their role as skeletal muscle relaxants during anesthesia Ganglion blocker (names only) (No-6 red part to be deleted)


07: Adrenergic neurotransmission

Drugs modifying the events Adrenergic receptors Effects of stimulation of adrenoceptors


08: Adrenergic Drugs

Classification Adrenergic inotropic agents & their role in therapy Role of Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Dopamine, and dobutamine in therapy Adrenergic vasoconstrictors, nasal decongestants


09: Selective β2 agonists as Bronchodilators, Other bronchodilators

used in bronchial asthma


 10: α–adrenoceptor antagonist

Role of selective α1 antagonist in therapy

11: β- adrenoceptor antagonist

Role of β blockers in therapy


Renal & Cardiovascular Pharmacology Lectures:


01: Diuretics

Classification of diuretics: based on sites & mechanism of action and efficacy Pharmacology of Thiazides, Loop, Potassium-sparing diuretics: their role in therapy edema and hypertension


02: Drugs used in hypertension

Epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension, Objectives of anti-hypertensive therapy, Classification of anti-hypertensive drugs. Pharmacology of Diuretics, b blockers, Ca channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor antagonists, blockers, methyl dopa, Vasodilators Principles of selection of drug in different clinical situations


03: Drugs used in congestive cardiac failure

Pathophysiology of heart failure Objectives of therapy Drugs used in CCF: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors & ARBs, Selective b-blockers, (Additional) Cardiac glycosides, vasodilators, Phosphodiesterase inhibitors.


04: Antianginal drugs

Pathophysiology of angina, Objectives of therapy Drugs used in angina: Nitrates, β- blockers, Ca2+ channel blockers.


05. Antiarrhythmic Drugs

Pathophysiology of arrhythmia Pharmacology of antiarrhythmic drugs





01: Anticoagulants & Thrombolytics

Pathophysiology of thrombo-embolism Pharmacology of Anti-coagulants: Heparin and LMW heparin, warfarin. Pharmacology of thrombolytics: Streptokinase, Alteplase, Rerelease etc.

02: Antiplatelet drugs

Pharmacology of low-dose aspirin, clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and their role in therapy


03: Lipid-regulating drugs

Pharmacology of statins. fibrates, nicotinic acid, resins etc.


 04: Drugs for anemia

Pathophysiology of anemia Pharmacology of hemopoietic iron, folic acid, vit B12 Pharmacology of erythropoietin


Endocrine Pharmacology



01: Endocrine Pancreas and control of blood glucose

Islet hormones, control of blood glucose Diabetes mellitus – types, diagnostic criteria, monitoring Insulin & preparations Oral Hypoglycemic agent’s Hypoglycemic reactions & management


02: Adrenal cortex and drugs used in therapy

Adrenocortical hormones: synthesis & blockers; Control of secretion, mechanism of action Pharmacological actions, uses, and preparations Adverse effects


03: Reproductive system

Hormonal control of female reproductive system Estrogens & anti-estrogens Progesterone & anti-progesterone Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Drugs used for contraception


04: The Uterus

Drugs that stimulate uterine contraction (oxytocic) Drugs that inhibit uterine contraction


05: The Thyroid

Synthesis, storage & secretion of thyroid hormones Thyroid functions & regulations Abnormalities of thyroid function Drugs used in the disease of the thyroid


Gastrointestinal Pharmacology



01: Drugs used in Peptic ulcer

Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer Therapeutic goal and approach Antacids, H2- blockers, Proton pump inhibitors, gastric cytoprotective agents, Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen Gastroprokinetic drugs and other agents


02: Drugs to treat diarrhea

Epidemiology, Principles of management Fluid and electrolyte replacement Selection of route and preparations ORS and different IV fluids Role of Antimicrobial drugs Antimotility drugs


 03: Drugs used in helminthiasis

 04: Laxatives


05: Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBS) & irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)


06: Anti-emetic and Pro-kinetic drugs

Term II

Pharmacology Practical 

Pharmacology Tutorial


Central Nervous System



01: Introduction to CNS Drugs

Neurotransmitters of CNS (distribution, ion channel) general characteristics of CNS drugs


02: Opioid analgesic

Pathophysiology of pain, Pain pathway, endogenous opioids, and opioid receptors Opioids: morphine, codeine, pethidine, tramadol, and fentanyl are used as analgesics compared. Role of morphine in myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema. Other clinical uses of opioids


03: Anxiolytics and hypnotics

Pathophysiology of sleep Benzodiazepines and other non-BDZ sedative-hypnotics Centrally acting muscle relaxants


04: Antidepressant drugs

Neurochemical basis of depression TCAs, SSRIs, MAOIs, and other atypical antidepressants, Antimanic drugs


05: Antipsychotic drugs

Neurochemical basis of psychosis Pharmacology of antipsychotic drugs:


06: Local anesthetic

Drugs, mechanism of action, techniques of local anesthesia, uses and hazards


07: General anesthetics

Principles of General Anesthesia pre-anesthetic medication, Balanced Anesthesia Induction & Maintenance: Intravenous anesthetics &Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxides, halothane, flurries)


08: Skeletal muscle relaxation

Depolarizing and non-depolarizing


09: Antiparkinsonian Drugs

Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s diseases Pharmacology of antiparkinsonian drugs


10: Antiepileptics/Anticonvulsants

Pathophysiology of epilepsy Pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs


Autacoids and drugs used in inflammation



01: Autacoids

Definition and lists of autacoids

Histamine: synthesis, storage & release, pharmacological actions & physiological role

Histamine antagonist: H1 antagonists: classification, role in allergic conditions & other clinical uses and adverse reactions

H2-receptor antagonists: role in peptic ulcer (covered with GIT Pharmacology)


02: Ecosanoids Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Synthetic pathways & antagonists’ Physiological roles, pharmacological actions and possible clinical uses of synthetic analogs and antagonists

03: NSAIDs / Non-opioid analgesics delete red part* of the line Paracetamol (mechanism of antipyretic and analgesic action, adverse effects) Other NSAIDs (mechanism of action, adverse effects and precaution) Selective COX-II inhibitors

 04. Drugs for Migraine





01: Introduction

General concept, Mode of action & Classification of antimicrobials Principles of antimicrobial therapy


02: Drug Resistance Mechanism of development of drug resistance by microbes


03: Cell wall synthesis inhibitors Penicillin’s Cephalosporins Other b-lactams Non b-lactam antibiotics

04: Protein Synthesis Inhibitors





Newer Protein synthesis inhibitors


05: Sulfonamides & Cotrimoxazole

Sulfonamides combinations, Topical uses Cotrimoxazole


06: Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones


07: Anti Amoebic Drugs:

Metronidazole and other uses of Metronidazole


08: Drugs used in Tuberculosis


09: Drugs used in Leprosy


10: Drugs used in Malaria & Kala-Azar


11: Drugs used in Fungal Infections


12: Drugs used in Viral Infections


13: Cancer Chemotherapy


14. Anti-Helminthic Drugs





01: Rational Prescribing

General Principles, cusses & consequences of irrational prescribing, Measures to prevent irrational prescribing


02: Essential Drug concept

Definition, Selection criteria, Essential Drug List Rationale for prescribing from this Drug List


03: ‘P’ Drug concept

Definition, Selection criteria, selection of ‘P’ Drug for some clinical situations 04: Drug selection for some special clinical conditions: Pregnancy, Lactating mother, elderly, children, renal/hepatic failure or impairment 05: Anti-microbial resistance and how to overcome the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials



1. Prescription writing

Format, legal & ethical aspects, drug nomenclature, compliance and Exercise on Prescription Writing

2. Drug Dosage Formulations

Source & Routes of drug administration Drug Formulation & Delivery Techniques Exercise on Drug Dosage Formulations


3. Clinical Pharmacokinetics Study of Time-Plasma Concentration Curves Determination of t½, Vd, Cl, Ke, steady-state concentration, Loading & Maintenance dose

4. Study of Pharmacodynamics


I. Study of Dose-Response Relationship

Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves

II. Study of Drug Antagonism

Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves in Presence of Antagonists


5. Adverse drug Reaction

Exercise on ADRs reporting & monitoring




1. Interpretation of Tracings on Blood Pressure

Demonstration of the presence of Autonomic receptors

2. Study of Effect of Drugs on Skeletal Neuromuscular Junction

Demonstration of the presence of Nicotinic receptors & effect of competitive reversible & irreversible neuromuscular blockers on them




1. Drug Information Sources

A comparative study of the ‘Prescribing information of Drugs’ as provided by the Manufacturers’ Product Literature and the authentic Drug Compendia (British National Formulary/ Bangladesh National Formulary)


2. Essential Drug Concept Exercise on Selection Essential Drugs


3. ‘P Drug’ Concept

Exercise on selection ‘P Drugs for different clinical situations & preparation of student formulary


4. Prescription Audit

Exercise on ‘Prescription Audit’ using INRUD indicators


ContentsTerm I

General Pharmacology:

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Autonomic Pharmacology:

  • Review of Cholinergic–Anticholinergic drugs
  • Revives of Adrenergic–Antiadrenergic drug
  • Drugs Acting on Renal & CVS
  • Review on Endocrine drug
  • Drugs for Bronchial asthma, PUD, Anemia


Term II

  • Drugs used in Anxiety, sleep disorder
  • Drugs used in depression, epilepsy and parkinsonism
  • Autacoids & NSAIDs
  • Chemotherapy for specific infections: Shigellosis, Enteric fever, ARIs, UTIs, malaria, tuberculosis, fungal infections
  • RUM: Principles of Rational prescribing & means to resist pressure for irrational prescribing, Essential Drug Concept