Marks distribution: Total marks – 300

Category Details Marks Total Marks
Written MCQ (Single Best Answer + Multiple True or False) 20 90
Structured Essay Question (SEQ) 70
Formative Assessment (FA) 10 10
SOE Structured Oral Examination 100 100
Practical Objective Structured Practical Exam (OSPE)

[08 procedure stations, each having 05 marks]

40 100

[Prescription writing 10,

Drug interaction 05 x 02 =10,

Tracing and plotting = 10,

Integrated teaching and Case report = (5+15) = 20,

Practical notebook =10]

Grand Total 300

Term I


Introduction to Pharmacology

Drug Compendia (Information sources)

  • Pharmacopoeiea, Formulary, Treatment guidelines (BP, INN, BNF, and BDNF)

Drug Administration

  • Routes, drug delivery, and formulations for local & systemic effects

Drug Absorption

  • Transfer of drugs across cell membrane & specialized barriers, Factors influencing absorption


  • Studies to compare Bio-equivalence to monitor therapy

Drug Distribution

  • Vd, Plasma protein & tissue binding, redistribution

Drug Metabolism

  • Where, why, and how of bio-transformation occurred
  • Hepatic microsomal enzymes- induction inhibition
  • Genetic influence on Drug metabolism (Pharmacogenetics)

Drug Elimination

  • Routes, Renal Excretion Factors Influencing Renal Excretion

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

  • Vd, CL, First & Zero order kinetics of Elimination
  • t½, Steady state concentration
  • loading dose & maintenance dose


  • Specific and non-specific mechanisms
  • Receptors involved
  • Second messenger system
  • Enzyme mediated drug action

Quantitative aspects of drug action

  • Dose-response relationships & curves
  • Therapeutic Index and window-importance Information obtained from D-R curves
  • Agonists – efficacy , potency, shift of curves
  • Antagonists – efficacy, potency, shift of curves

Individual variations in drug responses

Drug Interaction at different levels

Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance

Adverse drug reactions

  • Types, detecting, managing, monitoring &; reporting ADR



  • Organization of ANS – sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric NS
  • Transmitters in ANS (ACh, NA, NANCs) Co-transmission
  • Pre and postsynaptic modulation
  • Cholinergic neurotransmission & drugs modifying the events,
  • Cholinergic receptors

Cholinergic Drugs

  • Effects of the stimulation of Cholinoceptors
  • Classification of cholinergic drugs
    • cholinoceptor agonists and anti-cholinesterase

Drugs for Glaucoma

  • Role of Cholinergic drugs compared to other drugs

OPC insecticide poisoning

  • Manifestation & management

Anti-cholinergic Anti-muscarinic

  • Atropine and atropine substitutes

Anti-cholinergic anti-nicotinic

  • Classification – Neuromuscular blockers & their role as skeletal muscle relaxants during anesthesia
  • Ganglion blocker (names only)

Adrenergic neurotransmission

  • Drugs modifying the events
  • Adrenergic receptors
  • Effects of stimulation of adrenoceptors

Adrenergic Drugs

  • Classification
  • Adrenergic inotropic agents and Their role in therapy
  • Role of Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Dopamine, and dobutamine in therapy
  • Adrenergic vasoconstrictors & nasal decongestants

Selective β2 agonists as Bronchodilators, Other bronchodilators Used in bronchial asthma

α–adrenoceptor antagonist

  • Role of selective α1 antagonist in therapy

β- adrenoceptor antagonist

  • Role of β blockers in therapy

Renal & Cardiovascular Pharmacology


  • Classification of diuretics: based on sites & mechanism of action and efficacy
  • Pharmacology of Thiazides, Loop, Potassium-sparing diuretics: their role in therapy edema and hypertension

Drugs used in hypertension

  • Epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension, Objectives of anti-hypertensive therapy
  • Classification of anti-hypertensive drugs.
  • Pharmacology of Diuretics, b blockers, Ca channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor antagonists, blockers, methyl dopa, Vasodilators
  • Principles of selection of drug in different clinical situations

Drugs used in congestive cardiac failure

  • Pathophysiology of heart failure
  • Objectives of therapy
  • Drugs used in CCF: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors & ARBs, Selective
    b-blockers, (Additional) Cardiac glycosides, vasodilators, Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Antianginal drugs

  • Pathophysiology of angina
  • Objectives of therapy
  • Drugs used in angina: Nitrates, β- blockers, Ca2+ channel blockers

Antiarrhythmic Drugs

  • Pathophysiology of arrhythmia
  • Pharmacology of antiarrhythmic drugs


 Anticoagulants & Thrombolytics

Pathophysiology of thrombo-embolism

Pharmacology of Anti-coagulants: Heparin and LMW heparin, warfarin

Pharmacology of thrombolytics: Streptokinase, Alteplase, Rerelease etc

Antiplatelet drugs

Pharmacology of low-dose aspirin, clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and their role in therapy

Lipid-regulating drugs

Pharmacology of statins. fibrates, nicotinic acid, resins etc

Drugs for anemia

Pathophysiology of anemia Pharmacology of hemopoietic iron, folic acid, vit B12
Pharmacology of erythropoietin

Endocrine Pharmacology

Endocrine Pancreas and control of blood glucose

Islet hormones, control of blood glucose Diabetes mellitus – types, diagnostic criteria, monitoring Insulin & preparations Oral Hypoglycemic agent’s Hypoglycemic reactions & management

Adrenal cortex and drugs used in therapy

Adrenocortical hormones: synthesis & blockers; Control of secretion, mechanism of action Pharmacological actions, uses, and preparations Adverse effects

Reproductive system

Hormonal control of the female reproductive system Estrogens & anti-estrogens
Progesterone & anti-progesterone Hormone replacement therapy
(HRT) Drugs used for contraception

The Uterus

Drugs that stimulate uterine contraction (oxytocic) Drugs that inhibit uterine contraction

The Thyroid

Synthesis, storage & secretion of thyroid hormones Thyroid functions & regulations Abnormalities of thyroid function Drugs used in the disease of the thyroid

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

Drugs used in Peptic ulcer

Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer Therapeutic goal and approach Antacids, H2-blockers, Proton pump inhibitors, gastric cytoprotective agents, Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen Gastroprokinetic drugs and other agents

Drugs to treat diarrhea

Epidemiology, Principles of management Fluid and electrolyte replacement, Selection of route and preparations ORS and different IV fluids Role of Antimicrobial drugs, Antimotility drugs

Drugs used in helminthiasis


Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBS) & irritable bowel
syndrome (IBS)

Anti-emetic and Pro-kinetic drugs

Term II


Central Nervous System

Introduction to CNS Drugs

  • Neurotransmitters of CNS (distribution, ion channel)
  • General characteristics of CNS drugs


Opioid analgesic

  • Pathophysiology of pain, Pain pathway, endogenous opioids, and opioid receptors
  • Opioids: morphine, codeine, pethidine, tramadol, and fentanyl are used as analgesics compared
  • Role of morphine in myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema.
  • Other clinical uses of opioids

Anxiolytics and hypnotics

  • Pathophysiology of sleep
  • Benzodiazepines and other non-BDZ sedative-hypnotics
  • Centrally acting muscle relaxants

Antidepressant drugs

  • Neurochemical basis of depression
  • TCAs, SSRIs, MAOIs, and other atypical antidepressants
  • Antimanic drugs

Antipsychotic drugs

  • Neurochemical basis of psychosis
  • Pharmacology of antipsychotic drugs

Local anesthetic

  • Drugs, mechanism of action, techniques of local anesthesia
  • Clinic Uses and hazards of local anesthesia

General anesthetics

  • Principles of General Anesthesia
  • Pre-anesthetic medication, Balanced Anesthesia
  • Induction & Maintenance: Intravenous anesthetics &Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxides, halothane, flurries)

Skeletal muscle relaxation

  • Depolarizing and non-depolarizing

Antiparkinsonian Drugs

  • Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s diseases
  • Pharmacology of antiparkinsonian drugs


  • Pathophysiology of epilepsy
  • Pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs


Autacoids and drugs used in inflammation


  • Definition and lists of autacoids
  • Histamine: synthesis, storage & release, pharmacological actions & physiological role

Histamine antagonist

  • H1 antagonists: Classification, role in allergic conditions & other clinical uses and adverse reactions
  • H2-receptor antagonists: role in peptic ulcer (covered with GIT Pharmacology)


  • Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Synthetic pathways & antagonists
  • Physiological roles, pharmacological actions, and possible clinical uses of synthetic analogs and antagonists

NSAIDs / Non-opioid analgesics

  • Paracetamol (mechanism of antipyretic and analgesic action, adverse effects)
  • Other NSAIDs (mechanism of action, adverse effects, and precaution)
  • Selective COX-II inhibitors


Drugs for Migraine




  • General concept, Mode of action & Classification of antimicrobials
  • Principles of antimicrobial therapy

Drug Resistance

  • Mechanism of development of drug resistance by microbes

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

  • Penicillin’s
  • Cephalosporins
  • Other b-lactams
  • Non-b-lactam antibiotics

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tetracyclines
  • Macrolides
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Newer Protein synthesis inhibitors

Sulfonamides & Cotrimoxazole

  • Sulfonamides combinations
  • Topical uses of Cotrimoxazole

Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones

Anti Amoebic Drugs

  • Metronidazole and other uses of Metronidazole

Drugs used in Tuberculosis

Drugs used in Leprosy

Drugs used in Malaria & Kala-Azar

Drugs used in Fungal Infections

Drugs used in Viral Infections

Cancer Chemotherapy

Anti-Helminthic Drugs



Rational Prescribing

  • General Principles, cusses & consequences of irrational prescribing
  • Measures to prevent irrational prescribing

Essential Drug concept

  • Definition, Selection criteria, Essential Drug List
  • Rationale for prescribing from this Drug List

‘P’ Drug concept

  • Definition, Selection criteria,
  • selection of ‘P’ drug for some clinical situations

Drug selection for some special clinical conditions: Pregnancy, Lactating mother, elderly, children, renal/hepatic failure or impairment

Anti-microbial resistance and how to overcome the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials

Pharmacology Practical

Prescription writing

  • Format, legal & ethical aspects, drug nomenclature, compliance, and Exercise on Prescription Writing

Drug Dosage Formulations

  • Source & Routes of Drug Administration
  • Drug Formulation & Delivery Techniques
  • Exercise on Drug Dosage Formulations

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

  • Study of Time-Plasma Concentration Curves
  • Determination of t½, Vd, Cl, Ke, steady-state concentration, Loading & Maintenance dose

Study of Pharmacodynamics

I. Study of Dose-Response Relationship

  • Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves

II. Study of Drug Antagonism

  • Construction of Log Dose-Response Curves in the Presence of Antagonists


Adverse drug Reaction

Exercise on ADRs reporting & monitoring



Interpretation of Tracings on Blood Pressure

  • Demonstration of the presence of Autonomic receptors

Study of Effect of Drugs on Skeletal Neuromuscular Junction

  • Demonstration of the presence of Nicotinic receptors & effect of competitive reversible & irreversible neuromuscular blockers on them



Drug Information Sources

  • A comparative study of the ‘Prescribing information of Drugs’ as provided by the Manufacturers
  • Product Literature and the authentic Drug Compendia (British National Formulary/ Bangladesh National Formulary)

Essential Drug Concept

  • Exercise on Selection Essential Drugs

‘P Drug’ Concept

  • Exercise on selection ‘P Drugs for different clinical situations & preparation of student formulary

Prescription Audit

  • Exercise on ‘Prescription Audit’ using INRUD indicators


Pharmacology Tutorials

Term I

General Pharmacology

  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Autonomic Pharmacology

  • Review of Cholinergic–Anticholinergic drugs
  • Review of Adrenergic–Antiadrenergic drug

Drugs Acting on Renal & CVS
Review on Endocrine drug
Drugs for Bronchial asthma, PUD, Anemia

Term II

  • Drugs used in Anxiety, sleep disorder
  • Drugs used in depression, epilepsy and parkinsonism
  • Autacoids & NSAIDs
  • Chemotherapy for specific infections: Shigellosis, Enteric fever, ARIs, UTIs, malaria, tuberculosis, fungal infections
  • RUM (Principles of Rational prescribing & means to resist pressure for irrational prescribing, Essential Drug Concept)