Marks distribution: Total marks – 400

Category Details Marks Total Marks
Written MCQ (Single Best Answer + Multiple True Or False) 40 200
Structured Essay Question (SEQ) 140
Formative Assessment (FA) 20
SOE Structured Oral Examination 100 100
Practical Objective Structured Practical Exam (OSPE) 40 100
Traditional 40
Note Book 10
Assignment on Integrating Teaching 10
Grand Total 400

 

Cellular Physiology

Core

  • Physiology: Definition, goal & importance of physiology
  • Homeostasis: definition, major functional systems, control systems, and regulation of the body function
  • The cell
  • functions of cell membrane and cell organelles
  • The cell membrane transport: active & passive transport, exocytosis & endocytosis, intercellular communication
  • Membrane potential: definition, basic physics of membrane potential, Resting membrane potential

Action potential

  • definition & propagation of action potential
  • Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction & relaxation

Neuromuscular junction: transmission of impulse from the nerve ending to the mufiber

Physiology of Blood

Core

  • Blood: composition & functions
  • Plasma proteins: origin, normal values, properties, functions & effect of hypoproteinemia
  • Development and normal values of formed elements
  • RBC: erythropoiesis
  • Hemoglobin: synthesis, types, functions & fate of hemoglobin
  • Red blood cell indices
  • Anemia, Polycythemia & Jaundice: definition & classification
  • WBC: Classification, morphology, properties & functions, leukocytosis, leucopenia
  • Platelet: morphology & functions
  • Hemostasis: definition & events
  • Coagulation: definition, mechanism
  • Clotting factors & fibrinolysis
  • Blood grouping: ABO & Rh system
  • Hazards of blood transfusion & Rh incompatibility

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Bleeding disorder: thrombocytopenic purpura & hemophilia, tests for bleeding disorder

Cardiovascular Physiology

Core

  • Cardiac muscle: physiological anatomy, properties
  • Junctional tissues of the heart: generation of cardiac impulse & its conduction
  • Cardiac cycle: events, pressure & volume changes during different phases
  • Heart sounds: types & characteristics
  • ECG: principles, characteristics & interpretations
  • Functional classification of blood vessels & microcirculation
  • Interrelationship among pressure, flow, and resistance
  • Local & humoral control of blood flow by the tissue
  • Exchange of fluid through the capillary membrane
  • SV, EDV, ESV, EF: definition & factors affecting them
  • Cardiac output: definition, measurement, regulation, and factors affecting cardiac output
  • Venous return: definition and factors affecting
  • Peripheral resistance: definition & factors affecting
  • Heart rate: definition, normal values, factors affecting & regulation
  • Radial pulse: definition & characteristics
  • Blood pressure: definition, types, measurement & regulation of arterial blood pressure

Additional/Applied Physiology

Circulatory adjustment during exercise, Coronary circulation

Cardiac arrhythmias: tachycardia, bradycardia, bradycardia & heart block

Shock: definition, classification. Physiological basis of the compensatory mechanism of circulatory shock

Respiratory Physiology

Core

  • Physiological anatomy of the respiratory system
  • Respiration: definition, mechanism
  • Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation
  • Pulmonary volumes and capacities (spirometry)
  • Dead space: definition & types
  • Pulmonary circulation- pressure in pulmonary system effect of hydrostatic pressure in lungs, pulmonary capillary dynamics
  • Composition of atmospheric, alveolar, inspired, and expired air
  • Respiratory unit and respiratory membrane
  • Diffusion of Gases through the respiratory membrane
  • Transport of Oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood & body fluid. Oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Bohr effect, Haldane effect & chloride shift mechanism
  • Respiratory centers: name, location & functions
  • Nervous & chemical regulation of respiration
  • Lung function tests: name, significance
  • Ventilation -perfusion ratio
  • Regulation of respiration during exercise
  • Hypoxia: definition, types
  • Cyanosis: definition & types

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Oxygen therapy in hypoxia
  • Definition of dyspnea, hypercapnia & periodic breathing

Renal Physiology

Core

  • Kidney: functions
  • Nephron: types, parts, structure & functions
  • Renal circulation: peculiarities & functional importance
  • Urine formation: basic mechanism
  • GFR: definition, determinants, measurement, control of GFR & regulation of renal blood flow
  • Reabsorption and secretion by the renal tubules
  • Definition of Tm, Renal threshold, tubular load & plasma load, plasma clearance and diuresis,
  • Mechanism of formation of concentrated urine & diluted urine
  • Micturition reflex

Additional/Applied Physiology

Abnormalities of micturition

Gastrointestinal Physiology

Core

  • Physiological anatomy of gastrointestinal (GI) tract
  • Enteric nervous system
  • Local hormones of GIT: name, function & regulation of secretion
  • Hormonal control of GI function
  • Movements of the GIT
  • GI reflexes
  • Functions of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

Additional / Applied Physiology

  • Pyloric pump

Endocrine Physiology and Physiology of Reproduction

Core

  • Endocrine glands: name & name of their hormones
  • Hormone: definition, classification, mechanism of action, assessment of hormone level
  • Hypothalamic hormones, releasing & inhibitory hormones: name and functions
  • Pituitary Gland:physiological anatomy
  • Pituitary hormones (anterior & posterior): name, functions, mechanism of actions, and their control by the hypothalamus and disorders (dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly & hypopituitarism, and diabetes insipidus)
  • Thyroid Gland: physiological anatomy
  • Thyroid hormones: biosynthesis, transport, functions, mechanism of action, regulation of secretion, disorders (hypo and hyperthyroidism, cretinism, myxoedema and goitre)
  • Parathyroid Gland: physiological anatomy
  • Parathyroid hormone: functions, mechanism of action & regulation of secretion

Adrenal Gland

  • physiological anatomy. Adrenocortical hormones: name, functions, mechanism of action, regulation secretion & disorders (Addison’s disease, Cushing’s Syndrome, Conn’s disease)
  • Islets of Langerhans of pancreas- hormones: functions, mechanism of action & regulation of secrets

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Pathophysiology of insulin deficiency
  • Introduction to reproductive physiology, sex determination & sex differentiation Puberty
  • Functional anatomy of the male reproductive system
  • Secondary sex characteristics of male
  • Testes: functional structure and functions
  • Testosterone: function
  • Spermatogenesis: steps & hormonal control
  • Functional anatomy of the female reproductive system
  • Secondary sex characteristics of female
  • Ovaries: functional structure and functions. Functional structure of the uterus
  • Menstrual cycle: definition, phases and hormonal control
  • Ovarian cycle: phases and hormonal regulation
  • Ovulation: definition, mechanism & hormonal control
  • Definition of menstruation, menarche & menopause
  • Ovarian hormones
  • Functions of estrogen and progesterone
  • Placental hormones: name & functions
  • Mammogenesis: development and lactation

 

Additional/Applied Physiology

Indicators of ovulation. Anovulatory cycle.

 

Neurophysiology

Core

  • Functional organization of the nervous system and functions of major levels of the Central Nervous System
    (CNS)
  • Neuron: definition, parts, types
  • Nerve fiber: classification, properties, effects of injury/section to the nerve fiber
  • Synapse: physiological anatomy, properties, types, synaptic transmission
  • Neurotransmitters: definition, types, functions
  • Sensory receptor: definition, classification, properties, receptor potential
  • General/somatic senses: definition, classification
  • Ascending tracts/sensory pathways: name & function
  • Spinothalamic tract, tract of Gall, tract of Burdach, spinocerebellar tract: origin, course, termination & function
  • Cerebral cortex: name & functions of the Brodmann’s areas
  • Reflex: definition, classification, properties
  • Reflex arc: definition, components
  • Stretch reflex, withdrawal reflex, crossed extensor reflex, reciprocal innervation & planter response
  • Muscle spindle: definition, physiological anatomy, functions
  • Muscle tone: definition, function, maintenance
  • Descending tracts/motor pathways: name & function
  • Pyramidal tract: origin, course, termination, function & effect of lesion
  • Extrapyramidal tract: name, functions
  • Upper motor neuron and Lower motor neuron: definition, example, effect of lesion
  • Spinal cord: hemi section
  • Cerebellum: functional division, functions, error control mechanism of motor activity & cerebellar disorder
  • Basal ganglia: functional components, functions & effects of lesion
  • Thalamus, Reticular formation, limbic system: components & functions
  • Hypothalamus: name of the nucleus and functions
  • Autonomic Nervous system: components and functions

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Pain: types, the dual pathway for transmission of pain, referred pain. The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus. Posture, equilibrium: definition, name of the areas controlling them. Sleep, memory: definition, name of the areas controlling them. Alarm or stress response

 

Physiology of Body Temperature

Core

  • Normal body temperature, site of measurement, sources of heat gain, channels of heat loss, and regulation of body temperature in hot and cold environments

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Heat stroke, hypothermia, frostbite, fever

 

Physiology of Special Senses

Core

  • Vision: physiological anatomy of the eye, image formation in the eyes, visual receptors, visual pathway, common refractive errors, photochemistry of vision, accommodation reaction, light reflex, dark & light adaptation, field of vision, color vision, color blindness, visual acuity
  • Hearing:auditory apparatus, receptor, mechanism of sound wave transmission, auditory pathway
  • Smell: smell receptors, olfactory pathway
  • Taste: taste receptors, modalities of taste sensation, taste pathway

Additional/Applied Physiology

  • Effects of the lesion on the visual pathway
  • Argyll Robertson pupil, Horner’s syndrome

 

Physiology Practical

Core

  • Developing skills in using of microscope & common laboratory equipment
  • Collection & preparation of blood samples
  • Observation of osmotic behavior of RBC
  • Determination of the total count of RBC
  • Determination of the total count of WBC
  • Determination of differential count of WBC
  • Estimation of hemoglobin
  • Observation of osmotic fragility of RBC
  • Determination of ESR
  • Determination of PCV
  • Determination of Blood grouping (ABO & Rh system) & cross-matching
  • Determination of bleeding time & clotting time
  • Interpretation of Red Cell Indices

Core

  • Measurement of Blood Pressure & effect of exercise on it
  • Auscultation of 1st & 2nd heart sounds
  • Examination of the radial pulse
  • Recording & analysis of normal ECG (12 leads)

Core

  • Examination of the respiratory system (physiological aspect)
  • Counting of respiratory rate
  • Auscultation of breath sounds
  • Determination of lung function tests including Spirometry

Core

  • Examination of motor & sensory functions
  • Elicitation of the reflexes & interpretation of its clinical importance. (knee jerk, biceps jerk, triceps jerks & planter response)

Core

  • Auscultation of intestinal sound

Core

  • Determination of specific gravity of urine

Core

  • Examination of motor & sensory functions
  • Elicitation of the reflexes & interpretation of its clinical importance. (Knee jerk, biceps jerk, triceps jerks & planter response)

Core

  • Recording of the body temperature
  • Observation of the effect of exercise on body temperature

Core

  • Observation of Light reflex
  • Interpretation of visual acuity and color vision
  • Conduction and interpretation of Rinne test & Weber test